What is PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinine)?

Pyrroloquinoline quinine, also known as PQQ, is a redox cofactor and a polyphenolic compound usually derived in food plants. It is classified as an essential micronutrient because of its usefulness to the body. It is found in the cytoplasm of cells and helps with reduction reactions and oxidation. This compound is amazingly powerful at carrying out redox reactions, and can conduct about thirty to five thousand more cycles than the regular Vitamin C.

PQQ can be consumed as a dietary supplement to aid cellular energy production and mitochondrial health and to defend the body against oxidative stress. Its most notable aspect is the fact that it stimulates the spontaneous formation of new mitochondria in the body’s aging cells, and also triggers genes governing mitochondrial protection, reproduction, and repair. While PQQ helps the body in many different ways, here are its main benefits.


It is a strong neuroprotective compound that protects cognition and memory in aging humans. Studies conducted have shown that pyrroloquinoline quinine overturns the cognitive deterioration brought about by severe oxidative stress and helps people to perform better on memory tests. PQQ supplements stimulate nerve growth creation and discharge in neuron-supporting cells in the brain. This leads to improved memory function.

PQQ is an anti-aging defense for the top energy-exhaustive organs. Its top capacity as a superior anti-oxidant and cell signaling modulator makes it very effective in fighting age-related declines as well as degenerative diseases in the body’s most energy-intensive organs; the brain and heart.

PQQ hinders the gene known as DJ-1 from self-oxidizing. This gene leads to Parkinson’s disease if left unchecked. PQQ also prevents aggregation of alpha-synuclein and defends the nerve cells from the damaging effects of amyloid-beta protein; the compounds linked to Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease respectively. Research shows that the mitochondria of a middle aged person and that of an old person is usually highly damaged. PQQ boosts the health of the mitochondria and reverses this situation.

PQQ hinders oxidative damage on the brain cells following ischemia-reperfusion injury (the oxidative damage and inflammation that is caused by the immediate return of nutrients and blood to tissues deprived of them by a stroke). PQQ also works effectively to protect your brain against any neurotoxicity that is induced by powerful toxins such as oxidopamine and mercury.

PQQ protects neurons by inhibiting the damaging effects of prolonged over-stimulation of neurons usually associated with seizures and neurodegenerative diseases. PQQ interacts with the brain’s neurotransmitter system in a beneficial manner. It protects the neurons by adjusting the NMDA receptor site. NMDA is a very powerful intermediary of “excitotoxicity,” a result of prolonged overstimulation of neurons linked to many neurodegenerative seizures and diseases.


PQQ promotes attention, cognition, and memory. People who take a PQQ supplement of 20 mg every day show improved performance in enhanced memory tests than those who don’t. When PQQ is taken together with coenzyme Q10, it improves the quality of life of old people as well as their mental status. It also prevents or slows down the age-related cognitive decline that occurs among old and middle aged people.


Damage from heart attack is usually inflicted via ischemia-reperfusion injury. PQQ supplements help reduce the size of the damaged areas resulting from acute heart attack. Studies carried out showed that this healing process occurs the whether PQQ is given before or after the heart attack. The supplements help reduce the size of the damaged areas and defend against heart muscle dysfunction. This suggests that giving PQQ supplements to a heart attack victim within the initial hours of medical response can offer significant benefits to them. PQQ also helps the heart’s muscle cells to resist severe oxidative stress by enhancing and preserving mitochondrial function.

What is PQQ’s Anti-Oxidant capacity and function in Mitochondrial Health?

Mitochondria are very vulnerable to destruction from oxidative damage because they function as the main engines for almost all bioenergy production in a person’s body. Mitochondrial dysfunction is widely recognized by scientists as a major biomarker of aging. Mitochondrial DNA possesses little protection against free radical damage, and therefore depends on antioxidants for protection. PQQ’s potent free radical-scavenging ability gives the mitochondria superior antioxidant protection because of its high molecular stability and ability to transfer energy directly within the mitochondria. Its exceptional molecular stability is unlike that of other antioxidants because it allows PQQ to perform numerous electron transfers without going through molecular breakdown.

PQQ is very effective in neutralizing hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, which are the two major causes of mitochondrial dysfunction. A study conducted at The University of California at Davis showed that PQQ is between 30 to 5,000 times more effective at sustaining mitochondrial energy production (redox cycling) than other antioxidant compounds such as Ascorbic Acid.

What is PQQ’s Role in Growth and Development?

PQQ’s critical function in growth and development comes from its exceptional ability to stimulate cell signaling pathways that are directly involved in development, function, and cellular energy metabolism. It encourages the natural growth of mitochondria in the body’s aging cells (Mitochondrial Biogenesis). This process helps in improving human health and longevity. Apart from this process, the only other methods known to activate mitochondrial biogenesis in old people are strict caloric restrictions, intense aerobic exercises, and specific medications such as Metformin and Thiazolidinediones (for diabetes). PQQ is therefore a crucial compound in enhancing mitochondrial function resulting in better output for the body’s energy cells.

PQQ is an essential compound that plays a critical part in the human body. Without it, a person can experience growth impairment, abnormal reproductive function, and compromised immune status. The immune system is very responsive to low amounts of PQQ and requires it just like other essential nutrients. When the body is deprived of PQQ, multiple defects occur in the body’s immune functions.

Mitochondria dysfunction has been linked to almost all killer diseases of aging, from type 2 diabetes, to Alzheimer’s disease, to heart failure. PQQ effectively stimulates mitochondria repair, reproduction, and protection. It also provides optimal defense against neural degeneration and gives powerful cardioprotection to ensure one lives a long and healthy life.



Are there any companies that sell timed-release PQQ?